Tuesday, December 24, 2019

The Morality of Abortion Essay - 1413 Words

The Morality of Abortion On the question of abortion being moral, the answer is clearly that terminating a fetus life under certain circumstances is not only moral, but it is also our responsibility to terminate it if the quality of life is in question for the fetus. A second major reason is that to declare abortion immoral would mean that we would have to consider the factor of how the conception came about. This cannot and should not be done. Quality is a major factor in the question of the morality of abortion. When parents decide to keep or not keep a baby the issue of adoption does not play into this. The reason for this is that once the baby is born that the parents may change their mind if they want to keep it. Parents†¦show more content†¦If the fetus is not at fault but can be terminated, why should a different set of standards be in effect because two young people experimenting with sex made a mistake and the end result was the same as in the case of rape. I offer you the explanation that the circumstances surrounding the pregnancy can be deemed moral or immoral, but the fetus and therefore the abortion cannot. The outcome was an accidental meeting of a sperm and an egg in both instances. The moment of conception does not assemble a human the instant that the egg hits the sperm, it takes a full nine months. During this gestation period parts develop slowly, not all at once. Science has determined when the cut off is that a fetus can think and feel etc... If it were impossible for us to know when a fetus could feel and think than the obvious answer would be that it is immoral, but we can tell and therefore it is not. I think that it is important to remember that morals can be established for a society in particular, such as abortion in immoral, but cannot be changed by the context of how the pregnancy occurred. Either the termination of life is moral or it isnt. By this line of reasoning you can follow me to the logical conclusion of this paragraph. If it is logical and ethical to terminate the life of a fetus because of a particular circumstance, then it is moral to do so under any circumstance. AShow MoreRelatedAbortion : The Morality Of Abortion1442 Words   |  6 Pagesdebated topics in bioethics is the morality of abortion, or the ending of a pregnancy without physically giving birth to an infant. Often times abortions are categorized into eithe r spontaneous, a natural miscarriage; induced or intentional, which is premeditated and for any reason; or therapeutic, which albeit intentional, its sole purpose is to save the mother’s life. It seems however that moral conflicts on issue mainly arise when discussing induced abortions. In general, people universally agreeRead MoreAbortion And The Morality Of It921 Words   |  4 PagesAbortion and the morality of it has been a hot topic for years in the United States although it has been carried out for centuries in different cultures. Abortion is a medical procedure deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Abortions usually happen within the first 28 weeks of pregnancy and are considered an outpatient procedure. The first abortion laws were passed by Britain in 1803 and by 1880 most abortions in the U.S. were illegal, except for those that were performed to save the life of a womanRead MoreMorality of Abortion1478 Words   |  6 PagesMorality of Abortion For the past couple of decades, the issue of abortion has been the most heated topic debated in the United States. When considering this topic, one must look at three things: ethics, emotions and the law; for all of these are important to this issue. Like any debate, there are two sides to this issue: pro-choice and pro-life. The people who are pro- abortion say that the mother is the ultimate person to decide to abort a pregnancy and that the government should not get involvedRead MoreIs The Morality Of Abortions?956 Words   |  4 PagesThe topic I choose to discuss is the morality of abortions. Merriam-Webster defines abortion as the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus. Abortion has been a very controversial matter and the ongoing controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of induced abortion. Some individuals are pro life and completely against it; they feel that abortion is immoral i s because it is the intentional killing of a human beingRead MoreThe Morality Of The Abortion Of A Fetus1948 Words   |  8 PagesIntroduction: In this essay, the morality of the abortion of a fetus will be discussed in a drama involving a married couple named Deb and Derek (Smolkin, Bourgeois Findler, 2010).  For clarification purposes, we must first define the topic of this discussion; abortion is defined as the act in which a female voluntarily terminates her pregnancy where this act is legally permitted (Warren, 1973). Deb who is 16 weeks pregnant discovers that the fetus she is carrying will most likely be born mentallyRead MoreA Debate On The Morality Of Abortion1575 Words   |  7 Pagesthat makes sense to me and that has moral significance is clearly our ability to love, to put the needs of others before ourselves, and do it regardless of the personnel cost. Without this ability we would not even be having a debate on the morality of abortion. Thus I am arguing that the human ability to love and have a moral compass is what gives us our inherent value. Some might object that I added the potential clause to the sentence â€Å"To be human is to be at once a member of the species Homo sapiensRead MoreThe Legality And Morality Of Abortion1103 Words   |  5 Pages The legality and morality of abortion is a huge topic in today’s society. Are there ever times when it is justified? Who has a say in the matter of whether or not it is justified? How does one know how to justify abortion? â€Å"Given a particular pregnancy, who should decide whether or not it ought to be terminated?† (Jaggar, 218) People argue over whether or not the unborn child has the right to life or does the woman have the right to her own body. Other party’s possibly involved are the stateRead More The Morality of Abortions Essay2719 Words   |  11 PagesThe Morality of Abortions Abortion’s legalization through Supreme Court’s Roe v. Wade, has allowed for one in three pregnancies to end in abortion. This means that 1.5 million abortions are performed in the United States each year (Flanders 3). It ranks among the most complex and controversial issues, arousing heated legal, political, and ethical debates. The modern debate over abortion is a conflict of competing moral ideas and of fundamental human rights: to life, to privacy, to control overRead MoreThe Morality of Abortion Essay examples1494 Words   |  6 PagesThe Morality of Abortion Abortion is the termination of a foetus whilst in the womb and is a constantly argued issue in todays society. Whether abortion is moral or immoral depends on many topics and on one particular topic; when does life start? In 1976 the Abortion act was made active in England and Wales. This allowed the termination of a foetus aged up to 28 weeks, and for the first time women had the right to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. However limitationsRead MoreMorality Of Abortion s Argument1207 Words   |  5 Pages Morality of Abortion Counter-Argument Kyle Pedigo PHI 103: Informal Logic Micheal Pelt August 29, 2015 â€Æ' Morality of Abortion This paper is written to present a counter argument. This is a counter argument to a debate that has been around for a very long time and likely will not go away any time soon. The topic I will be covering is: Does the stage of pregnancy affect the morality of abortion? In my opinion I have to say no. But, my opinion is not the subject of this paper. My original argument

Monday, December 16, 2019

Successful Development Of Technology At Microsoft Free Essays

string(101) " has shown that the feature set in a specification document may sometime change by 30% or even more\." The success of Microsoft can be viewed from a number of perspectives. This ranges from its managerial and organizational position to the development and processing of its products and services for its customers. This implies looking at how Microsoft invents new products with substantial utility to the customers, strategies implemented by the company to make different groups and divisions to work together in harmony to achieve mega success. We will write a custom essay sample on Successful Development Of Technology At Microsoft or any similar topic only for you Order Now Having the best brains in the organization is not just enough to bring out the best software and the best products for the market. There must be effective managerial skills; these would harness the potentials the best brains in technology improvement, retain their autonomy just like any other highly qualified person would do, yet still work together to give the company the best. This paper evaluates the secrets of Microsoft’s success in developing superb technology and remaining on top of the market. Since it is very difficult to maintain the best brains within an organization without having them move out to practice their skills on the private basis, the paper tries to evaluate how the company maintains these best software developers and their work in harmony to bring out the best for the company. Microsoft currently is the world’s largest manufacturer of PC software, and having annual revenue of $8. 7 billion. It is probably the only PC Company that has handled more PC software projects than any other company in the world. This task is Herculean as there is a lot of complexity involved in the process, for example the development of Windows 95 that has more than 11 million lines of code and required an expansion team of more than 200 programmers as well as testers. This is one of the greatest challenge that most of the rivals to Microsoft are unable to do and thus the difficult in competing [Reimer, 2008] Their philosophy on product development and improvement for the last few years has been to develop its roots as a highly flexible, entrepreneurial company that does not to take up too many of the structured software-engineering practices that are commonly practiced and promoted by organizations such as the International Standards Organization and Software Engineering Institute. Microsoft strategy is developing a loosely structured small-team that some people might refer to as hacker style of product development. Their objective is to get many small as well as parallel teams that are composed of three to eight developers each, or individual programmers who eventually work together as one team in order to build large pile of products relatively fast while still allowing individual programmers and the team members their freedom to evolve their designs and even operate nearly autonomously [Hardmeier, 2008]. The small parallel teams develop features and whole products freely while at the same time frequently introducing new technologies concepts. However, since the developers are free to innovate while working with Microsoft, they are required to synchronize their changes frequently so that the product components work in harmony. In this regard, there are several lessons to be learned from how Microsoft develops its software products; some apply to other organizations, and some may not. Software developers as well as their managers from other organizations can discover useful ideas after careful consideration of such factors as their company’s goals, strategies, marketing resource constraints, and development culture and software reliability requirements [Reimer, 2008]. They can also learn to frequently synchronize and carry out periodic stabilizations of their products. Without this approach implemented by Microsoft, it would probably never have been able to design, develop, and ship the products it offers now and is planning to offer in the future [Reimer, 2008]. Teams of programmers at Microsoft and testers usually synchronize and periodically stabilize the changes they make to their products in progress, thus yielding products such as Publisher, Excel, Office, Windows 95, Word, Works, and Windows NT etc. Since the mid-1980s, Microsoft as well as other PC software companies has recognized that they build software products in response to quality. Many of them have also found it important to have larger teams in order to come up with PC software products that consist of hundreds of thousands or even millions of lines of source code hence requiring hundreds of people to build and then test them over a certain period [Hardmeier, 2008]. The technology development approach must have a mechanism that allows developers to test their product with their customers and also refine their designs during the development process. In most industries, many of the companies are now using prototyping and multiple cycles of concurrent design, build, and testing activities aimed at controlling interactions and also make fundamental changes in their product development. In the software industry, researchers and their managers have talked about â€Å"interactive enhancement,† a â€Å"spiral model† for iteration in the phases of the project development, and the â€Å"concurrent development† of multiple phases and the activities for the past 20 years. Unfortunately most companies are reluctant to formally adopt these recommendations. Since users’ needs for most software are very difficult to understand and the changes in hardware and software technologies are very frequent, it is not wise to design a software system completely in advance [Lemo, 2008]. Microsoft teams start the process of product development at the point of creating a â€Å"vision statement†, and then define the goals for the new product and the user activities that need to be supported by the new product features. Then, the product managers or the marketing specialists take charge while the consulting program managers who specialize in writing functional specifications of the product are also incorporated. In consultation with developers, program managers, then write a functional specification that outlines the product features with organized schedules and the staffing allocations; the initial specification document rarely covers all the details of each feature. During product development, team members revise the features set and details, and learn about the new product. Experience at Microsoft has shown that the feature set in a specification document may sometime change by 30% or even more. You read "Successful Development Of Technology At Microsoft" in category "Papers" Project managers are obliged to divide the product and the entire project into different parts; they also divide the project schedule into three or four milestone junctures called sequential sub projects meant to represent the completion points for major portions of the new product in each of the milestone subproject, all the feature teams are expected to go through a complete cycle of development, feature integration, testing, as well as fixing problems. Throughout an entire project, they (feature teams) are required to synchronize their work in the process of building the product as well as finding and fixing errors on a daily, weekly basis. The program developer is expected to fix detectable errors at the end of a milestone subproject. These error correction is a way of stabilizing the product and thus enable the product developing team to have a clear understanding of the parts of the product that have been successfully completed. After this achievement, the development team usually proceeds to the next milestone, [Hardmeier, 2008]. One of the most important things in high-tech companies is employing creative people, but directing their creativity is supreme. This is the task of the managers. Microsoft has a strategy for tackling this problem; it structures projects into subprojects that contain priority-ordered features; and the buffer time that is within each subproject gives the developers adequate time to respond to the changes, unexpected delays and difficulties. Microsoft projects usually use the vision statements as well as outline specifications rather than a detailed design and the complete product specifications before coding. This is done because the teams have realized that they cannot determine, in advance, what the developers need to build a good product. This approach gives the developers and program managers enough room to adapt to change, the unforeseen competitive opportunities and even threats. This is particularly related to the applications products, since development teams try in many instances to devise features that copy directly to the activities that typical customers perform. Thus the teams need to have continual observation and testing with the users during development [Lemos, 2008]. Most of the product designs have modular architectures that allow team members to add or combine features in a predictable straightforward manner. In addition, the presence of managers allows team members to have their own schedules, but this is only after the developers have critically analyzed tasks in detail. Managers are then mandated to â€Å"fix† project resources by limiting the number of experts they allocate to each of the project; they also limit the time spent on projects, especially for the applications like Office and multimedia products, so that team members can delete features if they are far from reaching deadlines. But it should be noted that cutting features in order to save schedule, time has not always been possible with the operating systems projects. In these kinds of projects, reliability is of more importance than the features. Most of the features in the operating system are closely coupled and thus cannot be easily deleted individually. The daily building of processes at Microsoft has several steps. First, to develop a feature for a product, developers check out private copies of source code files which are located at a centralized master version of the source code. They then implement their individual features by making necessary changes to their private copies of the source code files. The developers are then mandated to create a private build of the product that contains the new features and test it. Changes from the developers’ private copies are then checked from the source code files to the main master version of the source code. This check-in process has an automated regression test to ensure that changes to the source code files do not create errors in other parts of the product. This check-in by the developers back to the master copy is done at least twice a week but in some instances they may check it daily [Lemos, 2008]. Irrespective of the way the individual developers check in their changes to the main source code, a designated developer, often called the project build master, generates a complete build of the product on a daily basis by using the master version of the source code. Product teams at Microsoft also test features as they continuously build them from various perspectives. This may include bringing in customers from the street to try prototype in a Microsoft usability lab. Also most of the Microsoft teams work from a single physical site with common development languages (primarily C and C++), standardized common coding styles and development tools. This common language and common site and tools help team members, debate, communicate, resolve problems face to face and design ideas. A small set of quantitative metrics is used in the project teams to help guide decisions in order to complete a project and also when to ship a new or upgraded product to market [Lemos, 2008]. Conclusion There are important lessons to be learnt from Microsoft especially for organizations and managers in various industries. The synch-and-stabilize approach that is used at Microsoft is particularly suited to fast-evolving markets that have complex systems products, competition around fast-evolving product features as well as defacto high technical standards and the short life cycles. Of particular interest and important lesson is how Microsoft coordinates the work of a large team of professionals thus successfully building many interdependent parts although continually changing and requiring a constant high level of communication, coordination is still maintained. Indeed, one should appreciate that it is difficult to ensure such communication and the effective coordination there, and at the same time still allow engineers, designers and marketing people enjoy the freedom to be creative. Achieving this sought of balance is inevitably the central dilemma that the managers of product development usually face—in PC software and in many other industries. REFERENCE: Jeremy Reimer. Microsoft set to launch new marketing campaign. Ars Technica. Retrieved on 28th March 2008. Sandi Hardmeier. Microsoft – The History of Internet Explorer. Microsoft. Retrieved on 28th March 2008 Robert Lemos. Trust or treachery? Security technologies could backfire against consumers. CNet news.com. Retrieved on 28th March 2008    How to cite Successful Development Of Technology At Microsoft, Essays

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Americas Most Shameful Moment free essay sample

Americas Most Shameful Moment President Jackson ordered Indian removal despite the Constitution, and this was very controversial between the Native Americans, general public, and law makers. Andrew Jackson most certainly did not have the right to order the removal of the Native Americans. Beside from ethics, his own government branch of the Supreme Court declared it illegal. John Marshall decided that the Cherokees had their own nation, and it would be wrong for the United States to claim the land of the Cherokee their own. Jacksons people, the people of the United States felt that they had the right to deal with the land however they pleased, but that was just opinion. Legally, he did not have the right to force Indian removal. Personally, I feel that Andrew Jackson should not have removed the Native Americans. The American Indians were on the land first, and were strongly attached to their land in a religious sense. We will write a custom essay sample on Americas Most Shameful Moment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Indians did not at all want to â€Å"trade lands†. Jackson acted like a bigot and a bully, forcing out the natives because he felt that they couldnt have used the land as well as the civilized whites. Without the Indian Removal Act, the U. S. would possibly be much smaller, poorer, and weaker as a nation. Economically, obviously, Jackson did the right thing. Ethically, though which really counts, it was an atrocious, horrible, nasty decision. Jackson should never have removed the Native Americans, and Americans today should be ashamed of this decision. Jackson argued that unless the Supreme Court could keep Indian removal from happening, it will happen anyway, with his approval. his proves that Andrew Jackson strongly felt that states should hold jurisdiction over the federal government. He believed in a small federal government. Jackson felt that if the state of Georgia wanted to do the opposite of the law of the Supreme Court, then they have the right to. Jackson believed in keeping the federal government small, and was even willing to break a law and the Constitution to support his belief in government and U. S. power over Native Americans.