Tuesday, December 24, 2019
The Morality of Abortion On the question of abortion being moral, the answer is clearly that terminating a fetus life under certain circumstances is not only moral, but it is also our responsibility to terminate it if the quality of life is in question for the fetus. A second major reason is that to declare abortion immoral would mean that we would have to consider the factor of how the conception came about. This cannot and should not be done. Quality is a major factor in the question of the morality of abortion. When parents decide to keep or not keep a baby the issue of adoption does not play into this. The reason for this is that once the baby is born that the parents may change their mind if they want to keep it. ParentsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If the fetus is not at fault but can be terminated, why should a different set of standards be in effect because two young people experimenting with sex made a mistake and the end result was the same as in the case of rape. I offer you the explanation that the circumstances surrounding the pregnancy can be deemed moral or immoral, but the fetus and therefore the abortion cannot. The outcome was an accidental meeting of a sperm and an egg in both instances. The moment of conception does not assemble a human the instant that the egg hits the sperm, it takes a full nine months. During this gestation period parts develop slowly, not all at once. Science has determined when the cut off is that a fetus can think and feel etc... If it were impossible for us to know when a fetus could feel and think than the obvious answer would be that it is immoral, but we can tell and therefore it is not. I think that it is important to remember that morals can be established for a society in particular, such as abortion in immoral, but cannot be changed by the context of how the pregnancy occurred. Either the termination of life is moral or it isnt. By this line of reasoning you can follow me to the logical conclusion of this paragraph. If it is logical and ethical to terminate the life of a fetus because of a particular circumstance, then it is moral to do so under any circumstance. AShow MoreRelatedAbortion : The Morality Of Abortion1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdebated topics in bioethics is the morality of abortion, or the ending of a pregnancy without physically giving birth to an infant. Often times abortions are categorized into eithe r spontaneous, a natural miscarriage; induced or intentional, which is premeditated and for any reason; or therapeutic, which albeit intentional, its sole purpose is to save the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It seems however that moral conflicts on issue mainly arise when discussing induced abortions. In general, people universally agreeRead MoreAbortion And The Morality Of It921 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAbortion and the morality of it has been a hot topic for years in the United States although it has been carried out for centuries in different cultures. Abortion is a medical procedure deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Abortions usually happen within the first 28 weeks of pregnancy and are considered an outpatient procedure. The first abortion laws were passed by Britain in 1803 and by 1880 most abortions in the U.S. were illegal, except for those that were performed to save the life of a womanRead MoreMorality of Abortion1478 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMorality of Abortion For the past couple of decades, the issue of abortion has been the most heated topic debated in the United States. When considering this topic, one must look at three things: ethics, emotions and the law; for all of these are important to this issue. Like any debate, there are two sides to this issue: pro-choice and pro-life. The people who are pro- abortion say that the mother is the ultimate person to decide to abort a pregnancy and that the government should not get involvedRead MoreIs The Morality Of Abortions?956 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe topic I choose to discuss is the morality of abortions. Merriam-Webster defines abortion as the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus. Abortion has been a very controversial matter and the ongoing controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of induced abortion. Some individuals are pro life and completely against it; they feel that abortion is immoral i s because it is the intentional killing of a human beingRead MoreThe Morality Of The Abortion Of A Fetus1948 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIntroduction: In this essay, the morality of the abortion of a fetus will be discussed in a drama involving a married couple named Deb and Derek (Smolkin, Bourgeois Findler, 2010).Ã For clarification purposes, we must first define the topic of this discussion; abortion is defined as the act in which a female voluntarily terminates her pregnancy where this act is legally permitted (Warren, 1973). Deb who is 16 weeks pregnant discovers that the fetus she is carrying will most likely be born mentallyRead MoreA Debate On The Morality Of Abortion1575 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthat makes sense to me and that has moral significance is clearly our ability to love, to put the needs of others before ourselves, and do it regardless of the personnel cost. Without this ability we would not even be having a debate on the morality of abortion. Thus I am arguing that the human ability to love and have a moral compass is what gives us our inherent value. Some might object that I added the potential clause to the sentence Ã¢â¬Å"To be human is to be at once a member of the species Homo sapiensRead MoreThe Legality And Morality Of Abortion1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The legality and morality of abortion is a huge topic in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Are there ever times when it is justified? Who has a say in the matter of whether or not it is justified? How does one know how to justify abortion? Ã¢â¬Å"Given a particular pregnancy, who should decide whether or not it ought to be terminated?Ã¢â¬ (Jaggar, 218) People argue over whether or not the unborn child has the right to life or does the woman have the right to her own body. Other partyÃ¢â¬â¢s possibly involved are the stateRead More The Morality of Abortions Essay2719 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThe Morality of Abortions AbortionÃ¢â¬â¢s legalization through Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s Roe v. Wade, has allowed for one in three pregnancies to end in abortion. This means that 1.5 million abortions are performed in the United States each year (Flanders 3). It ranks among the most complex and controversial issues, arousing heated legal, political, and ethical debates. The modern debate over abortion is a conflict of competing moral ideas and of fundamental human rights: to life, to privacy, to control overRead MoreThe Morality of Abortion Essay examples1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Morality of Abortion Abortion is the termination of a foetus whilst in the womb and is a constantly argued issue in todays society. Whether abortion is moral or immoral depends on many topics and on one particular topic; when does life start? In 1976 the Abortion act was made active in England and Wales. This allowed the termination of a foetus aged up to 28 weeks, and for the first time women had the right to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. However limitationsRead MoreMorality Of Abortion s Argument1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Morality of Abortion Counter-Argument Kyle Pedigo PHI 103: Informal Logic Micheal Pelt August 29, 2015 Ã¢â¬Æ' Morality of Abortion This paper is written to present a counter argument. This is a counter argument to a debate that has been around for a very long time and likely will not go away any time soon. The topic I will be covering is: Does the stage of pregnancy affect the morality of abortion? In my opinion I have to say no. But, my opinion is not the subject of this paper. My original argument
Monday, December 16, 2019
string(101) " has shown that the feature set in a specification document may sometime change by 30% or even more\." The success of Microsoft can be viewed from a number of perspectives. This ranges from its managerial and organizational position to the development and processing of its products and services for its customers. This implies looking at how Microsoft invents new products with substantial utility to the customers, strategies implemented by the company to make different groups and divisions to work together in harmony to achieve mega success. We will write a custom essay sample on Successful Development Of Technology At Microsoft or any similar topic only for you Order Now Having the best brains in the organization is not just enough to bring out the best software and the best products for the market. There must be effective managerial skills; these would harness the potentials the best brains in technology improvement, retain their autonomy just like any other highly qualified person would do, yet still work together to give the company the best. This paper evaluates the secrets of MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s success in developing superb technology and remaining on top of the market. Since it is very difficult to maintain the best brains within an organization without having them move out to practice their skills on the private basis, the paper tries to evaluate how the company maintains these best software developers and their work in harmony to bring out the best for the company. Microsoft currently is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest manufacturer of PC software, and having annual revenue of $8. 7 billion. It is probably the only PC Company that has handled more PC software projects than any other company in the world. This task is Herculean as there is a lot of complexity involved in the process, for example the development of Windows 95 that has more than 11 million lines of code and required an expansion team of more than 200 programmers as well as testers. This is one of the greatest challenge that most of the rivals to Microsoft are unable to do and thus the difficult in competing [Reimer, 2008] Their philosophy on product development and improvement for the last few years has been to develop its roots as a highly flexible, entrepreneurial company that does not to take up too many of the structured software-engineering practices that are commonly practiced and promoted by organizations such as the International Standards Organization and Software Engineering Institute. Microsoft strategy is developing a loosely structured small-team that some people might refer to as hacker style of product development. Their objective is to get many small as well as parallel teams that are composed of three to eight developers each, or individual programmers who eventually work together as one team in order to build large pile of products relatively fast while still allowing individual programmers and the team members their freedom to evolve their designs and even operate nearly autonomously [Hardmeier, 2008]. The small parallel teams develop features and whole products freely while at the same time frequently introducing new technologies concepts. However, since the developers are free to innovate while working with Microsoft, they are required to synchronize their changes frequently so that the product components work in harmony. In this regard, there are several lessons to be learned from how Microsoft develops its software products; some apply to other organizations, and some may not. Software developers as well as their managers from other organizations can discover useful ideas after careful consideration of such factors as their companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals, strategies, marketing resource constraints, and development culture and software reliability requirements [Reimer, 2008]. They can also learn to frequently synchronize and carry out periodic stabilizations of their products. Without this approach implemented by Microsoft, it would probably never have been able to design, develop, and ship the products it offers now and is planning to offer in the future [Reimer, 2008]. Teams of programmers at Microsoft and testers usually synchronize and periodically stabilize the changes they make to their products in progress, thus yielding products such as Publisher, Excel, Office, Windows 95, Word, Works, and Windows NT etc. Since the mid-1980s, Microsoft as well as other PC software companies has recognized that they build software products in response to quality. Many of them have also found it important to have larger teams in order to come up with PC software products that consist of hundreds of thousands or even millions of lines of source code hence requiring hundreds of people to build and then test them over a certain period [Hardmeier, 2008]. The technology development approach must have a mechanism that allows developers to test their product with their customers and also refine their designs during the development process. In most industries, many of the companies are now using prototyping and multiple cycles of concurrent design, build, and testing activities aimed at controlling interactions and also make fundamental changes in their product development. In the software industry, researchers and their managers have talked about Ã¢â¬Å"interactive enhancement,Ã¢â¬ a Ã¢â¬Å"spiral modelÃ¢â¬ for iteration in the phases of the project development, and the Ã¢â¬Å"concurrent developmentÃ¢â¬ of multiple phases and the activities for the past 20 years. Unfortunately most companies are reluctant to formally adopt these recommendations. Since usersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs for most software are very difficult to understand and the changes in hardware and software technologies are very frequent, it is not wise to design a software system completely in advance [Lemo, 2008]. Microsoft teams start the process of product development at the point of creating a Ã¢â¬Å"vision statementÃ¢â¬ , and then define the goals for the new product and the user activities that need to be supported by the new product features. Then, the product managers or the marketing specialists take charge while the consulting program managers who specialize in writing functional specifications of the product are also incorporated. In consultation with developers, program managers, then write a functional specification that outlines the product features with organized schedules and the staffing allocations; the initial specification document rarely covers all the details of each feature. During product development, team members revise the features set and details, and learn about the new product. Experience at Microsoft has shown that the feature set in a specification document may sometime change by 30% or even more. You read "Successful Development Of Technology At Microsoft" in category "Papers" Project managers are obliged to divide the product and the entire project into different parts; they also divide the project schedule into three or four milestone junctures called sequential sub projects meant to represent the completion points for major portions of the new product in each of the milestone subproject, all the feature teams are expected to go through a complete cycle of development, feature integration, testing, as well as fixing problems. Throughout an entire project, they (feature teams) are required to synchronize their work in the process of building the product as well as finding and fixing errors on a daily, weekly basis. The program developer is expected to fix detectable errors at the end of a milestone subproject. These error correction is a way of stabilizing the product and thus enable the product developing team to have a clear understanding of the parts of the product that have been successfully completed. After this achievement, the development team usually proceeds to the next milestone, [Hardmeier, 2008]. One of the most important things in high-tech companies is employing creative people, but directing their creativity is supreme. This is the task of the managers. Microsoft has a strategy for tackling this problem; it structures projects into subprojects that contain priority-ordered features; and the buffer time that is within each subproject gives the developers adequate time to respond to the changes, unexpected delays and difficulties. Microsoft projects usually use the vision statements as well as outline specifications rather than a detailed design and the complete product specifications before coding. This is done because the teams have realized that they cannot determine, in advance, what the developers need to build a good product. This approach gives the developers and program managers enough room to adapt to change, the unforeseen competitive opportunities and even threats. This is particularly related to the applications products, since development teams try in many instances to devise features that copy directly to the activities that typical customers perform. Thus the teams need to have continual observation and testing with the users during development [Lemos, 2008]. Most of the product designs have modular architectures that allow team members to add or combine features in a predictable straightforward manner. In addition, the presence of managers allows team members to have their own schedules, but this is only after the developers have critically analyzed tasks in detail. Managers are then mandated to Ã¢â¬Å"fixÃ¢â¬ project resources by limiting the number of experts they allocate to each of the project; they also limit the time spent on projects, especially for the applications like Office and multimedia products, so that team members can delete features if they are far from reaching deadlines. But it should be noted that cutting features in order to save schedule, time has not always been possible with the operating systems projects. In these kinds of projects, reliability is of more importance than the features. Most of the features in the operating system are closely coupled and thus cannot be easily deleted individually. The daily building of processes at Microsoft has several steps. First, to develop a feature for a product, developers check out private copies of source code files which are located at a centralized master version of the source code. They then implement their individual features by making necessary changes to their private copies of the source code files. The developers are then mandated to create a private build of the product that contains the new features and test it. Changes from the developersÃ¢â¬â¢ private copies are then checked from the source code files to the main master version of the source code. This check-in process has an automated regression test to ensure that changes to the source code files do not create errors in other parts of the product. This check-in by the developers back to the master copy is done at least twice a week but in some instances they may check it daily [Lemos, 2008]. Irrespective of the way the individual developers check in their changes to the main source code, a designated developer, often called the project build master, generates a complete build of the product on a daily basis by using the master version of the source code. Product teams at Microsoft also test features as they continuously build them from various perspectives. This may include bringing in customers from the street to try prototype in a Microsoft usability lab. Also most of the Microsoft teams work from a single physical site with common development languages (primarily C and C++), standardized common coding styles and development tools. This common language and common site and tools help team members, debate, communicate, resolve problems face to face and design ideas. A small set of quantitative metrics is used in the project teams to help guide decisions in order to complete a project and also when to ship a new or upgraded product to market [Lemos, 2008]. Conclusion There are important lessons to be learnt from Microsoft especially for organizations and managers in various industries. The synch-and-stabilize approach that is used at Microsoft is particularly suited to fast-evolving markets that have complex systems products, competition around fast-evolving product features as well as defacto high technical standards and the short life cycles. Of particular interest and important lesson is how Microsoft coordinates the work of a large team of professionals thus successfully building many interdependent parts although continually changing and requiring a constant high level of communication, coordination is still maintained. Indeed, one should appreciate that it is difficult to ensure such communication and the effective coordination there, and at the same time still allow engineers, designers and marketing people enjoy the freedom to be creative. Achieving this sought of balance is inevitably the central dilemma that the managers of product development usually faceÃ¢â¬âin PC software and in many other industries. REFERENCE: Jeremy Reimer. Microsoft set to launch new marketing campaign. Ars Technica. Retrieved on 28th March 2008. Sandi Hardmeier. Microsoft Ã¢â¬â The History of Internet Explorer. Microsoft. Retrieved on 28th March 2008 Robert Lemos. Trust or treachery? Security technologies could backfire against consumers. CNet news.com. Retrieved on 28th March 2008 Ã How to cite Successful Development Of Technology At Microsoft, Essays
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Americas Most Shameful Moment President Jackson ordered Indian removal despite the Constitution, and this was very controversial between the Native Americans, general public, and law makers. Andrew Jackson most certainly did not have the right to order the removal of the Native Americans. Beside from ethics, his own government branch of the Supreme Court declared it illegal. John Marshall decided that the Cherokees had their own nation, and it would be wrong for the United States to claim the land of the Cherokee their own. Jacksons people, the people of the United States felt that they had the right to deal with the land however they pleased, but that was just opinion. Legally, he did not have the right to force Indian removal. Personally, I feel that Andrew Jackson should not have removed the Native Americans. The American Indians were on the land first, and were strongly attached to their land in a religious sense. We will write a custom essay sample on Americas Most Shameful Moment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Indians did not at all want to Ã¢â¬Å"trade landsÃ¢â¬ . Jackson acted like a bigot and a bully, forcing out the natives because he felt that they couldnt have used the land as well as the civilized whites. Without the Indian Removal Act, the U. S. would possibly be much smaller, poorer, and weaker as a nation. Economically, obviously, Jackson did the right thing. Ethically, though which really counts, it was an atrocious, horrible, nasty decision. Jackson should never have removed the Native Americans, and Americans today should be ashamed of this decision. Jackson argued that unless the Supreme Court could keep Indian removal from happening, it will happen anyway, with his approval. his proves that Andrew Jackson strongly felt that states should hold jurisdiction over the federal government. He believed in a small federal government. Jackson felt that if the state of Georgia wanted to do the opposite of the law of the Supreme Court, then they have the right to. Jackson believed in keeping the federal government small, and was even willing to break a law and the Constitution to support his belief in government and U. S. power over Native Americans.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
, Research Paper The Philippines and the World Market The Philippines is considered to be one of the most westernized states in Asia. It has strong ties to the United States and the United States. In fact, It is the lone charter member of the U.N. in all of Southeast Asia. The United States has a really close relationship with the economic system and civilization of the Philippines. For case, Filipinos have a strong bitterness toward communistic states. During the cold war, the Philippines supported America by systematically being hostile toward communist states, and did non maintain diplomatic dealingss with the Soviet Union or any other communist province. The United States is the largest foreign consumer of Philippine merchandises. In many ways the endurance of the Filipino economic system depends on the united States. We purchase about all of the sugar exports, most of the coconut oil, embellishment, at least half of the base metals, and a 4th of the timber. We will write a custom essay sample on The Philippines And The World Market Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The United States supplies most of the Philippine imports of machinery, dairy merchandises, cotton, documents, drugs, cars and much or the crude oil merchandises. Although states like Japan, Canada Australi a, and New Zealand are acquiring more and more involved in trade with the Philippines, America remains to be the Philippines most of import trading spouse. When America acquired the Philippines and established free trade in 1909, the economic system of the islands was tied to that parent state. As a consequence, the Philippines became about wholly dependent upon United States markets. Therefore, America has had a strong influence on non merely the economic system of the Philippines, but besides the political relations of it. The United States established a public instruction system in the Philippines in the early 1900? s. Although they were non American schools they had many similarities. American instructors were used every bit good as American books. The instructors besides taught in English. The Filipino authorities is even designed after the American system and dedicated to democratic procedure. All in all America has become a really strong influence on the Philippines. Even though the exterior program was to construct up the Filipino economic system and authorities so allow them hold their independency, it seems obvious there was a deeper program to Americanise and economically command the county. Follow the money. .
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Women too apologetic in the boardroom Women too apologetic in the boardroom The language women use in meetings could be holding them back in business, according to new research. The study, an 18-month long examination of the speaking patterns of men and women within seven major companies, was run by applied linguistics lecturer Dr Judith Baxter. The biggest difference Dr Baxter noticed between the sexes was womens tendency to use humour, self-deprecation and apologetic language, apparently to avoid conflict. Indeed, they were found to be four times more likely to employ these techniques than men, who tended to be more direct and openly confrontational. And this could be undermining their own authority and making them look weak and defensive. [Women] have to work really hard to hit the right note with their colleagues, says Dr Baxter. I have seen a woman use all the wrong linguistic strategies, and she lost the room. This problematic habit occurs most, it seems, where women feel particularly outnumbered by men in meetings. And given that only 12.5 per cent of FTSE-100 company board members are women, the issue looks to have the makings of a vicious circle.
Friday, November 22, 2019
The Ultimate AP Psychology Review Guide 5-Step Prep Plan SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Preparing for the AP Psychology exam shouldn't cause you to lose your sanity (pun intended). Some of the material is challenging, but overall it's not that scary compared to other AP tests. If you stay focused during your studying and are familiar with the format of the test, you'll have a good chance of acing it! In this article, I'll provide specific details on the structure and content of the exam and tell you how you can make the best use your AP Psychology review time to end up with a great score. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the AP Psychology Exam Like? The AP Psychology exam is one of the shorter AP tests, clocking in at just two hours total. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll have an hour and ten minutes to complete 100 multiple-choice questions and the remaining 50 minutes to complete two open response questions. Overall, IÃ¢â¬â¢d say itÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the easiest AP tests based on its length and the complexity of its content. Since you only have 70 minutes for 100 multiple choice questions, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to make sure youÃ¢â¬â¢re keeping track of time. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to move relatively quickly because you have less than a minute for each question! Try not to spend more than 30 seconds on a question; you can always come back to the question later. There is no guessing penalty on multiple choice (as for all AP exams now) so incorrect answers wonÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt you any more than leaving questions blank. The open response questions shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t give you much trouble in terms of time. There are only two of them (much fewer than most other AP tests), and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re usually very straightforward. In many cases, they will just ask you to explain how terms youÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned in AP Psychology relate to a specific situation. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll also need some knowledge of the scientific method for certain open response questions that ask about the methodology of a psychological study. I'll give you examples of AP Psychology multiple-choice and free response questions in the next section. No penalties for incorrect answers! Finally, the College Board can lay off all those referees and free up some room in the budget. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s on the AP Psychology Exam? HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example of a multiple choice question you might see on the test: This question is kind of wordy, and it may seem like you need to know a lot to figure it out, but you could actually get the answer without much psychology knowledge at all (though itÃ¢â¬â¢s less confusing with some background information). The baby monkeys preferred the soft cloth surrogate mother over the wire surrogate with food, indicating that the comfort of the cloth was more important to them than the food when they were scared. The answer is B! Most multiple choice questions will involve either simple logic, like this one, or basic memorization of the content in the course. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example of an open response question that was on the 2015 exam: Here, itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to see how the points for the question are earned. The seven bullet points correspond to the seven possible points you can get from answering the question. This question is dependent on a comprehensive knowledge of specific terms and concepts from the AP Psychology curriculum. The College Board provides a breakdown of the different topics on the AP Psychology exam by percentage of questions. Here are the topics youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see on the exam (from most to least common): Topic Percentage of Questions Research Methods 8-10 Biological Bases of Behavior 8-10 Social Psychology 8-10 Cognition 8-10 Learning 7-9 Developmental Psychology 7-9 Abnormal Psychology 7-9 Sensation and Perception 6-8 Motivation and Emotion 6-8 Personality 5-7 Testing and Individual Differences 5-7 Treatment of Psychological Disorders 5-7 States of Consciousness 2-4 History and Approaches 2-4 This might inform how much of your AP Psychology review time you spend studying each topic, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s probably more important to pay attention to where you struggle the most on an individual level. For example, if you know all there is to know about Research Methods but donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember much about Treatment of Psychological Disorders, you should spend more time reviewing the second topic even though it relates to fewer questions. In the next section, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll give more specific guidance on how to review for the exam. Preliminary AP Psychology Study Tips Here are some tips to keep in mind before you start your AP Psychology exam review! They'll help you stay on the right track and make the most of your time. Tip 1: Plan Out Your Time How much time do you have before the test? You'll need to take this into account when formulating your study plan. Think about how much time you can afford to spend studying for AP Psychology while considering the amount of other schoolwork you have. For example, if you think you have about 10 hours to study, your plan might look something like this: Take and score a practice test (2.5 hours) Go over your mistakes (1 hour) Review weak content areas and update test-taking strategies (2 hours) Take and score another practice test (2.5 hours) Final review (2 hours) If you have longer, you might be able to go more in-depth with your mistakes on the second practice test and even take a third or fourth test. Overall, your time should be split relatively evenly between taking practice tests and reviewing the material. Your plan could change depending on your initial scores and how much youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking to improve. I would say that you don't need to spend more than 20 hours total studying for AP Psychology. The amount of material isn't overwhelming, and it's not an especially difficult test. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll get more specific on how to use practice tests effectively in the next section. Tip 2: Choose Review Materials Wisely YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll need reliable review materials to ensure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re getting the most out of your study sessions. IÃ¢â¬â¢d recommend buying a review book (5 Steps to a 5 and Cracking the AP Psychology Exam are the ones I like best). Review books cover just the information that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need for the exam, so theyÃ¢â¬â¢re going to be less overwhelming to study than your textbook or notes from class. That being said, donÃ¢â¬â¢t totally ignore the resources youÃ¢â¬â¢ve accumulated in your AP Psychology class. Your notes might include unique methods for remembering concepts and terms which can be useful as an alternative to the information in a review book. Your textbook could be useful as well because it might have diagrams that are better than the ones in review books. I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s just nice to have a review book as a backup so that you stay focused on your studying and donÃ¢â¬â¢t spend time on topics that are less relevant for the exam. This wise owl says "hoo hooo hoooooo," which translates to "Choose your review materials wisely like I would!" Either that or "They're coming. Tonight." Tip 3: Focus on Memorizing Terms The AP Psychology exam is centered around psychological terms and theories. Some of these can be confusing and hard to tell apart (or not what they sound like intuitively). It's really important to have a solid grasp on all the terms that you learned in the course for both multiple choice and free response questions. Free response questions will often ask you to relate an obscure psychology term to a certain hypothetical scenario, and it's impossible to get points if you aren't completely confident about the meaning of the term. Flashcards are helpful for this type of memorization. If you have time, you can make flashcards for all the important terms in the class or even just a few terms that always trip you up. These can be physical flashcards, or if that's too old-fashioned, you can use Quizlet to study virtual flashcards (in this case you won't even need to make your own; there are already a ton of user-created study sets). I find that writing down the definitions of terms yourself will drill their meanings into your brain more effectively, so I prefer making my own cards, but you can do whatever works best for your schedule and learning style. To put a fun spin on studying and ensure that you never forget terms, you can send flashcards that describe psychological disorders to people who seem to have them based on your expert diagnosis. They'll be sure to thank you later (disclaimer: if you do this you are probably a sociopath). Tip 4: Go Over Testing Strategies Before you take a practice test, you should be aware of the testing pitfalls that may impact your score. Don't sacrifice points on practice tests (or the real test!) due to factors unrelated to your knowledge of the material. Here are some strategies for different types of test questions: Multiple Choice Questions As I mentioned earlier in this article, the exam doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give you a ton of time for each multiple choice question. If you have a tendency to get stuck on difficult questions, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to keep this in mind during the AP Psychology test. Try to avoid spending more than 30 seconds on each question, and don't worry too much about skipping a few. It's possible to get a 5 on the test even if you miss 20-30 multiple choice questions. I'm not advocating skipping questions at random, but you should know that it's not the end of the world if you can't answer every single one. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also important not to overthink multiple choice questions. The questions can sound and look complex, but most of the time theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not overly difficult if you know the material. Underline the parts of the question that are most important so that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t get distracted or start to second-guess yourself. If one of the answers seems like it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense, eliminate it. Free Response Questions On free response questions, remember that this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t an English test! ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no need to write an introduction and conclusion; go straight for the answer to the question. That being said, you should still write in complete sentences with correct grammar. Make it as easy as possible for the graders to find your answers and give you points. Underline verbs like Ã¢â¬Å"describeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"defineÃ¢â¬ in the question to keep yourself focused on the task at hand. If the free response question is something like the example I provided in the previous section, it can be easier to work backward by putting yourself in the position of one of the people in the hypothetical scenario. You might say, "if I was looking to purchase a new house, what thoughts would cross my mind and why?" After thinking this through a little bit, you could look at the first term and make a connection. The prefrontal cortex is involved in planning and decision-making, so it would be used extensively in the process of committing to the purchase of a new house. This is the only house that would be in my price range right now. Jim doesn't know how good he has it. Your AP Psychology Review Plan in Action HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a basic outline of the steps you should take once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve prepared your materials and made a rough study plan for AP Psychology. Step 1: Take and Score a Practice Test The first thing you should do is take an initial practice test to see how high youÃ¢â¬â¢re currently scoring. You can find practice tests for AP Psychology in review books and online. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a review book, Googling Ã¢â¬Å"AP Psychology practice exam pdfÃ¢â¬ will yield many results. Use tests that were created as recently as possible (ideally within the last 5 years) to ensure that they are relatively similar to the test youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be taking. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a conversion table that shows you how raw composite scores from practice tests translate to the AP scale: Composite Score AP Score 113-150 5 93-112 4 77-92 3 65-76 2 0-64 1 To calculate your composite score, add up the number of multiple choice questions you answered correctly. Then, consult the scoring rubric for the free response questions to calculate the number of points you would earn on each question. Convert the number of points you earned on the free response questions to a value out of 50 (for example, if you got 8 out of 15 points on the two free response questions, you would convert that to about 27 out of 50). Then, add the raw score numbers from the multiple choice and free response sections together. If you earned 75 points (75 questions correct) on the multiple choice section and 27 points on the free response section, your composite score would be a 102, making your official AP Score a 4. See this article for more information on calculating your score. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve scored your practice test, you can set a future score goal. This is pretty simple for AP tests because the score range is just 1-5. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no reason not to aim for a 5 on the test, especially in the case of the AP Psychology exam. Since itÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the less difficult AP tests, a 5 should be achievable for you if you put some effort into studying. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re scoring very low right now, you could think about aiming for a 3 or 4 and increasing your goal if you reach it before the test. Even if youÃ¢â¬â¢re already in the 5 range, you should still consider doing a bit of studying if you have time. It's important to feel as comfortable as possible on the real test! You want the AP Psychology test to be like an old friend that you still pretend to like out of pity. Step 2: Analyze Your Mistakes Look at the questions you got wrong or had to guess on, and try to figure out why you struggled. Did you forget a term or concept? Were you not sure what the question was asking? Did you make a careless error? Did you run out of time? Which of these issues was most prevalent? Did you notice a certain type of question that you tended to get wrong? Record your findings on the nature of your mistakes so that you can correct them in your studying. This guide will help you with reviewing your mistakes (I know itÃ¢â¬â¢s for SAT/ACT practice tests, but the same principles apply here). Step 3: Review Weak Content Areas If you made a lot of mistakes related to content or question misunderstandings, you should try to figure out which areas caused you the most trouble. Then, you can consult your notes or a review book to brush up on terms and concepts that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve forgotten. AP Psychology involves quite a bit of memorization, so thereÃ¢â¬â¢s bound to be at least a few areas where you werenÃ¢â¬â¢t sure of the meaning of a term or couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember what a specific psychologist did. Stay focused on your weak areas, and pay special attention to weak areas that are also big parts of the exam. For example, if questions about cognition give you trouble, but you also struggle with the history and approaches category, put more effort into studying cognition. A knowledge deficit in this area will cost you more points in the end. Make sure you fix any weak links in your psychology knowledge chain before the exam. Step 4: Revise Your Test-Taking Strategies If your mistakes fell heavily on the side of time issues and careless errors, you should think more about how you can change your approach to the test. Remember to avoid getting stuck on difficult questions if youÃ¢â¬â¢re running out of time. Consider slowing down a bit and reading questions more carefully if you suffer from careless errors. Step 5: Rinse and Repeat! After youÃ¢â¬â¢ve revised your strategies and brushed up on your content knowledge, you should take another practice test to assess your progress. Then, you can go through the review process again and take steps to improve further. You can do this as many times as it takes for you to feel comfortable with the test and reach your score goal. Conclusion When reviewing for the AP Psychology exam, it's important to pay attention to the format of the test so that you know what to expect. You should also devote special attention to topic areas that are the most difficult for you. Both strong content knowledge and smart testing strategies are important if you want to earn a high score. Practice tests are the most valuable tools in your arsenal for checking on your progress as you review the material. Keep revising your strategies and closing any gaps in your content knowledge until you get to a score that makes you happy! What's Next? Want to learn more about specific AP Psychology topics? Start with our discussion of Stockholm Syndrome here. What does a good score on the AP Psychology mean for you in college? Learn more about how AP credit works at colleges. AP tests and SAT subject tests can both be important components of your college application. Find out the difference between the two and which type of test is more important. Are you taking AP US History along with AP Psychology? Read this article for some helpful AP US History study resources. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. 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Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Employment Tribunals - Essay Example As such, these labour legislations provide the set of restrictions upon the worker in his relationship with the employer and vice-versa in order to maintain industrial peace and harmony, consequently promoting industrial democracy. Similarly, these labour legislations are designed to look more on the immediate results of the employer-employee relationship. These are the body of rules and principles which governs the relationship between labour and management in the collective on the one hand and the principles of determining the rights and liabilities consequential to the individual relationship of employer and employees. When the conflicting interests of labour and capital are weighed down, the heavier influence of capital must be counterbalanced by the compassion and sympathy accorded to the worker. This is only fair if the worker is given the opportunity and the right to assert and defend his claim, not as a subordinate but also as a peer of management, with which he can negotiate on even plane. And these can be done and addressed before an employment tribunal. Aside from the foregoing Labour legislations, Employment Tribunals plays an important role in ensuring industrial peace and harmony. ... These include unfair dismissal, redundancy, payments, discrimination as well as claims relating to wages and dismissal among others. Employment Tribunals are like courts, but it is not as formal. Correspondingly, it acts independently. Claims are usually initiated by employees or trade unions. Cases are usually heard by a panel of three persons which include legally qualified chairperson and two lay members who use their employment experiences in judging the facts of the case. Employment Tribunals in the recent years are accessible to an aggrieved employee so as to address the latter's grievances against his employer. An employee can be represented by himself or by his organisation before the Employment Tribunal. Similarly, Employment Tribunals speedily address the cases before it. Employment Tribunal applications for cases must be made within three months of the incident, however, the Tribunal can extend the time limit it exceptional circumstance. The Tribunal will then ascertain as to whether or not the employee's claim can prosper. And in case of doubt as tot the claim, a preliminary hearing is conducted so as to decide whether the claim or response should prosper or not; decide whether or not the employee is entitled to bring or defend his claim and to decide if there is a need to pay the deposit and as to whether or not either side's case appear weak. This preliminary hearing is normally held in public before a chairman sitting alone or it can be held over the telephone. If the case goes ahead, case management discussions are held to clarify issues in the case, in the same way, it considers witnesses and pieces of evidence to be presented as well as the time and length of the full hearing. The aforementioned discussions can
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Trailblazers in Photography - Essay Example Thus, throughout the development of photography, several individuals have dedicated their lives to this art with astounding results and their names etched on the list of trailblazers in photography. Prominent trailblazers in photography Simply described, photography is the art as well as the science of creating long-lasting images on a film or paper and this ideally forms the basis of trailblazers in photography. Basically, the camera obscura which implies a dark chamber is the main device used in photography. Its invention dates back to Leonardo da Vinci discovery of the pin-hole camera. The camera works on the principle of concealing the image of an illuminated object where the image is taken (Halstead 1). Ancient cameras required the object to be exposed to light for as long as eight hours. The first photograph recorded was taken in 1826 by the French innovator, Joseph Nicephore Niepce. The exposure time recorded was eight hours which accounted for no ancient human photographs. Th ese ancient photographs were monochromes which continued to dominate the world of photography even after color photography came into being. The first color photograph of a tartan ribbon was taken by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861 (Halstead 1). Advancement in photography was then taken over by companies like Kodak, Sony among others. Photography has several genres among them photojournalism. Besides, various individuals have been for a long time known as trailblazers in photography. Among the distinguished figures of photojournalism, Alfred Eisenstaedt also became known as Eisie. Beginning his career in 1920 in Berlin as a photojournalist, Eisie rose to leave a great legacy and profound impact in photography. Using a camera invented by Dr. Erich Salomon, this photographer succeeded in recording peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. In fact, he endured the risk of annoying people by venturing into their rooms to photograph them. Furthermore, he engaged the people he photographed on the subject of his i nterest (Eder 258). His pictures produced a life story unlike others who did not utilize such ensuing opportunities or particular interests. Eisie revolutionized photojournalism in several ways. He had a passion for photography and never got tired of taking pictures. Eisie was a real visual story teller and provided a platform on which other foundations of photojournalism are based. The work Eisie was based on real life situations which represented a particular subject of his own interest. His passion for photography, humor, decisions and determination made him produce the best photos ever in his era. Photographs taken at his time were mostly monochromes (Halstead 1). Though todays photos are colored, few can match Eisie work. His contribution was so immense that he was named the photojournalist of the century. Fashion and women nudity are subjects of fascination which materialize hard to study apart. Few photographers dedicated their time to photograph these aspects. Helmut Newton is one of the famous photographers who dedicated his time to photograph fashion but later deviated to photographing naked women. Helmut started as a portrait photographer in Singapore. Basically, experience in photography paced way for the establishment of a studio in Australia. He later worked for the popular magazine dubbed as Playboy in California. Helmut had his best photography career and his photos remain highly priced assets (Weaver and Daniel 22). His popularity has
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Beowulf as a hero in modern society Essay In the historic epic Beowulf, its title character, Beowulf, is perceived as an unconventional as well as a traditional hero in current society. Beowulf, the son of Ecgtheow and Hygelacs thane, is presented as a fearless warrior to the audience. This acknowledgment of Beowulf causes the readers to instantly recognize that Beowulf is a well-respected man. Beowulfs magnitude is seen at the very beginning of the poem as the narrator states, The man whose name was known for courage, the Geat Leader (Heaney 25). Beowulf is announced to the Danish people with magnificence. Before proving Beowulfs heroic qualities, the viewers are conscious of the fact that Beowulf is a great warrior and the son of a well admired man. It can be distinguished that from Beowulfs opening statements he will become a hero. Bravery is a key characteristic that identifies a hero. Throughout the entire poem Beowulf appeared to possess infinite valor. He displayed courage in his swimming competition with Breca, and in his fights with Grendel, Grendels mother, and the dragon that fatally wounded him. In all of Beowulfs struggles, he revels wisdom, strength, and motivation. In his clash against Grendel, Beowulf utilizes his sheer strength to kill Grendel. He used his mighty strength to rip off the monsters arm from the shoulder. As stated by the narrator, The monsters whole body was in pain; a tremendous wound appeared on his shoulder Beowulf was granted the glory of winning (Heaney 55). The defeat of Grendel fulfills Beowulfs heroic duty. This is also seen with Grendels mother. After Grendels death, Grendels mother desires to avenge her child. Beowulf fights her in water and still prevails. By keeping true to his word Beowulf is able to prove his worth. Near the end of poem, Beowulf faces his last episode. He takes on a dragon that is creating havoc upon the city. Before facing the dragon he knows that he might die and yet still fights with glory and all of his might. On page 171 Beowulf states, This fight is not yours, nor is it up to any man except me I shall win the gold by my courage, or else mortal combat, doom of battle, will bear your lord away (Heaney 171). Beowulf yet again completes his task as he kills the dragon, however, he immediately dies from his wounds. Beowulf, a true hero, confronts his death with bravery. It is Beowulfs strength, determination, and courage that enable him to become a distinguishable hero in modern society. Although Beowulf is portrayed as a true Anglo-Saxon hero, he has qualities that would depict him not as one in current society. From Beowulfs initial introduction he is seen as being conceited and aggressive. During the first feast, Beowulf tells of the story of his swimming race. Beowulf states, I was the strongest swimmer of allTime and again, foul things attacked mebut I lashed out, gave as good as I got with my swordMy sword had killed nine sea-monsters. Such night-dangers and hard ordeals I have never heard of nor of a man more desolate in surging waves. (Heaney 37). This quote reveals the cockiness of Beowulf. He is very arrogant as he believes that he is the best and the bravest. Arrogance is not a characteristic of a hero. Another flaw is shown in Beowulfs character as he fights Grendel and Grendels mother. Beowulfs quarrel with Grendel exposes his true expression of violence. While Grendel and Beowulf are wrestling, Beowulf manages to get Grendel in such as position where he ripped off Grendels arm from the socket. This violent act can be seen as very brutal. The killing of Grendel in such a way would deny the right to name Beowulf as a hero in present society. In addition, the killing of Grendels mother has the same effect. While battling Grendels mother, Beowulf seeks assistance from an ancient blade. With this sword, he delivers a final blow to the neck of the monster. After determining that she is death, he still proceeds and decapitates her. He then returns with the head and displays it in Heorot. The decapitation of Grendels mother illustrates Beowulf as disrespectful and in violation of the heroic code, which doesnt identify him as a hero. In the eyes of contemporary society Beowulf can be recognize as a paradoxical character as he is embodied by both heroic and callous qualities.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
The Secret Garden The book was about a girl, a wealthy one, who lived in India. Her name was Mary. Mary always thought her parents never paid attention to her and was too busy with parties. Mary was always angry, but she never cried. She thought her mom didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care about her until one day, when her parents died. After her parents died she went with this lady named Mrs. Madlock. She was going to her uncleÃ¢â¬â¢s that Mary had never met before, Mrs. Madlock said. On the carriage-ride to her uncles, is when she found out exactly where she was going. Mary also found out that her mother had a twin sister, which was her uncleÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. But, she had died also. She was said that she had died from falling off a swing in her garden. She had reached her uncleÃ¢â¬â¢s house, but she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get to meet him, just yet. Her orders were to get some rest and maybe she could see him in the morning. The next morning she met Martha, Mrs. MadlockÃ¢â¬â¢s servant. After she was told to stay in her room she found a passage-door where it led to a dusty old room. She thought it most have been her AuntÃ¢â¬â¢s room because it had matching things as her mother. In that room she found a big key, an odd-looking key. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã That day she went outside to play. She wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure whom to play with; she didn't have any friends that didn't live in India. She found a robin, which led her to a door, a locked door. It had a keyhole that look as if the key in her auntÃ¢â¬â¢s bedroom would fit. She got the key from the bedroom and it slides in perfect. She opened the big door and looked around, she saw how beautiful everything was and a wooden swing. Then she saw a boy. The boyÃ¢â¬â¢s name was Dickon; he was MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s brother. She and Dickon became friends and they planted many flowers together. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A couple of nights later when she was wandering around the house like she shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have she heard a boy. She went to go see who it was. It was her cousin, Colin. She has never met him either, she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even know she had a cousin, nor an uncle. Colin has been in bed all his life, he was Ã¢â¬Å"sickÃ¢â¬ . Mary talked to him and became friends. THESECRT GARDEN :: essays research papers The Secret Garden The book was about a girl, a wealthy one, who lived in India. Her name was Mary. Mary always thought her parents never paid attention to her and was too busy with parties. Mary was always angry, but she never cried. She thought her mom didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care about her until one day, when her parents died. After her parents died she went with this lady named Mrs. Madlock. She was going to her uncleÃ¢â¬â¢s that Mary had never met before, Mrs. Madlock said. On the carriage-ride to her uncles, is when she found out exactly where she was going. Mary also found out that her mother had a twin sister, which was her uncleÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. But, she had died also. She was said that she had died from falling off a swing in her garden. She had reached her uncleÃ¢â¬â¢s house, but she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get to meet him, just yet. Her orders were to get some rest and maybe she could see him in the morning. The next morning she met Martha, Mrs. MadlockÃ¢â¬â¢s servant. After she was told to stay in her room she found a passage-door where it led to a dusty old room. She thought it most have been her AuntÃ¢â¬â¢s room because it had matching things as her mother. In that room she found a big key, an odd-looking key. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã That day she went outside to play. She wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure whom to play with; she didn't have any friends that didn't live in India. She found a robin, which led her to a door, a locked door. It had a keyhole that look as if the key in her auntÃ¢â¬â¢s bedroom would fit. She got the key from the bedroom and it slides in perfect. She opened the big door and looked around, she saw how beautiful everything was and a wooden swing. Then she saw a boy. The boyÃ¢â¬â¢s name was Dickon; he was MarthaÃ¢â¬â¢s brother. She and Dickon became friends and they planted many flowers together. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A couple of nights later when she was wandering around the house like she shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have she heard a boy. She went to go see who it was. It was her cousin, Colin. She has never met him either, she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even know she had a cousin, nor an uncle. Colin has been in bed all his life, he was Ã¢â¬Å"sickÃ¢â¬ . Mary talked to him and became friends.
Monday, November 11, 2019
TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of ContentsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 1 1. Dissertation TitleÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 3 2. Introduction Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 3 2. 1 Introduction to DissertationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 3 2. 2 Research QuestionsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 4 2. 3 Research ObjectivesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦4 3. Literature Review Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦5 3. 1 Online Shopping in ChinaÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦5 3. 2 Concept of E-service QualityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 5 3. 3 Dimensions of E-service QualityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 4. Research ModelÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 6 4. 1 Website DesignÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦7 4. 2 Easy of UseÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 7 4. 3 ResponsivenessÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦8 4. 4 ReliabilityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 8 4. 5 SecurityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 9 4. 6 TrustÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 9 5. Research MethodsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦9 5. 1 Qualitative ResearchÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 9 5. 2 Quantitative ResearchÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 10 5. Proposed Research MethodÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦10 6. Collection of DataÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 10 6. 1 Secondary DataÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 10 6. 2 Primary DataÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ¦. 10 6. 2. 1 Sample Size of Primary DataÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦11 7. Method of Data AnalysisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦1 1 8. Presentation of DissertationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 11 9. Ethical IssuesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 12 10. TimetableÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 13 11. Resourses ReferencesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 14 1. Dissertation Title:A study of factors influencing customer perceived E-service quality in online shopping 2. Introduction 2. 1 Introduction to Dissertation Nowad ays, with the rapid development of information and communication technology Internet has been played an important role in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life and regarded as a crucial tool to do business for them. More and more companies now are trying to make full use of it as a platform to start their businesses and develop their electronic commerce in internet (Dave Chaffey, 2004), with the purpose of gaining more competitive advantages and increasing their market share.Many of them would like to create their own company websites and publish the information about their products including the prices and the features there, which facilitate customers well informed, better known the price and other information in time when they are seeking for service and products online. According to this way, companies can interact with customers directly, which is quick different form the way of traditional transactions.However, with the increasing numbers of companies participating on the Internet market and t he growth of online shopping, the competition among online retailers has become more and more fierce. It requires online retailers to look for some strategies to better compete with their competitors and attract customers to their online shopping service, which are the main issues for them. Typically, providing competitive and low price and more products selected to customers is considered as the major way for online retailers to improve their products and service selling and therefore to enhance their competitive advantages.But now, instead, more and more businesses are realizing that there is anther factor affecting their online business performance besides the above factors mentioned, that is, their online service quality offered to customers, which is also called electronic service quality. Jun et al. (2004) has claimed that the e-service quality differentiation has become the most important factor for online retailers to attract and retain their customers in online shopping.Yan g (2001) and Zeithaml (2002) also have stated that the key determinants of the success for online retailers are not only including the website presence and the lower price offered to customers, but also including the electronic service quality. Therefore, electronic service quality has been as a crucial factor that determined a company doing a successful business in internet market. As a result, many of retailers in China now are trying to focus on their online service quality and quick motivated by it. However, only knowing e-service quality was a crucial factor for doing successful business is not enough for online retailer.The problem is before providing good e-service quality to customers and increasing the advantages, it is very important and needed for online retailers to know and understand how the customer evaluates their electronic service quality as a foundation for improving their selling, encouraging people to buy frequency and gain customer loyalty. 2. 2 Research Questi ons This research investigates what factors influencing Chinese customers perceived e-service quality in online shopping. This is helpful for online retailers better understand what kind of e-service quality their online customers want and what aspect need to improve for their service.RQ: What are the factors influence customers perceived e-service quality in online shopping? 2. 3 Research Objectives This study aims to Ã¢â¬ ¢ To examine how Chinese consumer perceived e-service quality in online shopping. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To identify the factors influencing customer perceive e-service quality in online shopping. 3. Literature Review 3. 1 Online Shopping in China According to the China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), China is now the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest Internet population country and the internet population in 2008 has been up to 298 million which was up by 41. % as compared with year 2007. With this rapid growth of the Internet population, the developments of online retailin g has been becoming so fast. According to iResearch, there were around 120 million people registered in internet as online shoppers in 2008 and the transaction value of online shopping in this year has reached to 128. 1 billion Yuan, which was up by 128. 5% as compared with year 2007. Industry experts expect that this growth trend of internet population and customersÃ¢â¬â¢ transactions online would be increased and extended in the next following years. . 2 Concept of E-service Quality Berry, Parasuraman and Zeithaml (1988) stated that service quality is a result which was perceived by customers that came from a comparison between customer expectations and desires addressed to the provider of products or service and the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the actual service received. It also can be defined as a service conformance to customer desires and requirements, or the ability of the product and service that satisfying customer needs as they expected. According to Ziethaml (2002) and Ziethaml et al. 2002), e-service quality is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the extent to which a website facilitates efficient and effective shopping, purchasing and delivery of products and servicesÃ¢â¬ . . 3. 3 Dimensions of E-service Quality Many researches have been done for the dimensions of determining customers evaluating e-service quality over the last two decades. Zeithaml (2002) has argued that there are eleven dimensions affecting customers evaluating the e-service quality online, which include reliability, responsiveness, access, flexibility, ease of navigation, efficiency, assurance/trust, security/privacy, site aesthetics, price knowledge and personalization.Jun, Yang and Peterson (2004) also have develop a framework consisting of 10 dimensions measuring customer service quality which include responsiveness (prompt response), reliability (accurate and efficient response), competence, access (accessibility of service and contact information), personalization, courtesy, contin uous improvement, communication, convenience, and control while Janda et al. (2002) has claimed that there are four dimensions of measuring e-service quality in his framework; they are access, security, sensation, and information/content. Besides, Parasuraman et al. 2005) has described that the efficiency, system availability, fulfillment and privacy are the core four dimensions influencing the core e-service quality. Moreover, Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003) have discussed that the web site design is also a main dimensions affecting customers perceived e-service quality in internet market except reliability, security and customer service. What is more, Yoo and Donthu (2001) in their framework also have concluded that ease of use, aesthetic design; processing speed and security are the measures evaluating the e-service quality. 4 Research Model The research model is a formed from various past researches.E-service quality variables that consist of reliability and responsiveness are ada pted from Santos (2003) and Zeithaml (2002), Jun, Yang and Peterson (2004); Security and trust are adapted from Zeithaml (2002), Janda et al. (2002) and Yoo and Donthu (2001); Besides, Website Design is adapted from Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2001, 2002) while easy of use is adapted from Yoo and Donthu (2001). [pic] Source: Create for this research 4. 1 Website Design Parasuraman et al. (1998); Kim and Lee (2002) defined website design is customer perceptions of degree of the user friendliness in using an online store.It is usually related to the design of the web site and regarding about the aesthetic elements of the website, such as the color, graphics, etc (Wolfinbarger and Gilly 2003). It is closely relative to how is the website looks; is it looking very good and attractive to people or very bad when they visit, and is the website much more creative than others. Gronroos et al. (2000) claimed that Ã¢â¬Å"a well-designed website creates an interest in the firm and its offerings, an d it should also offer the users opportunities to reconstruct the website in their minds so that it matches their cognitive structuresÃ¢â¬ ; 4. 2 Easy of UseLoiacono et al. (2002) stated that ease of use usually is relative with ease of understanding, which involves these three parts. First of all, the web site labels should be easy to understand; Secondary, The text on the Web site should be easy to read; thirdly, the display pages within the Web site are easy to read. Perceive ease of use is usually closely bound up with messaging, browsing, and downloading activities. Appropriate graphic and structural site designed website usually help to achieve easy of use and relevant content with visual appeal and therefore reduce the customer frustration (Janda et al. 2002). 4. 3 ReliabilityReliability has been considered as one of the important factors that have the most influence affecting people on shopping online. It is the ability to perform the service consistently and accurately. S antos (2003) also has described that it is the ability of online retailers that delivering the promised service to customers accurately and consistently which is consisted of updating the web site frequency for them and replying to their enquiries promptly, etc. It is a measure of coming from customersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions that whether they should count on their merchants or not, especially when the time comes to fulfill the promise for them.It is usually associated with the risk (Vijayasarathy and Jones, 2000). Online consumers usually extremely want to receive the items that they have booked on the internet market with the right quality and the right quantity, which was promised by the retailers before, and besides customers also would like them to be billed accurately (Kim et al. 2004). 4. 4 Responsiveness Responsiveness is a willingness to help customers and provide prompt service (Chaffey, 2004). It usually measures whether a company can provide the appropriate information to it s customers or not when there are some problems happened.It is therefore a kind of abilities that dealing with complaints and promptness of the service effectively (Santos 2003), such as an arrangement for online guarantees and a mechanism for handing returns (Wang, 2003). Hence, providing correct and fast responses to customers usually can help them to resolve their problems timely. Thus, it is an important way to increase the convenience and reduce the uncertainty to customers for online retailers and showing them that they are customer-oriented (Gummerus et al. , 2004). 4. 5 Security,According to Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Collegiate Dictionary, Security is the Ã¢â¬Å"quality or state of being secureÃ¢â¬ , which includes Ã¢â¬Å"freedom from dangerÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"freedom from fear or anxietyÃ¢â¬ . Security also means something that secures including measures taken to guard against espionage or sabotage, crime, attack, or escape. In an information technology context, security is a set of procedures, techniques, and safeguards designed to protect the hardware, software, data, and other system resources from unauthorized access, use, modification, or theft (Davis and Benamati, 2003). 4. 6 Trust Claire, 2005) has argued that trust is an important issue for online purchase and critical for their success. On the Internet market, trust is usually related to the process of buying and payment between the buyers and the sellers. Besides, trust is also shown on the reliability of the website and how the privacy and securities severed for customers. Moreover, the fulfillment of order, after sales service are also the main sources of trust. 5. Research Methods Research can be descriptive or explanatory. Description and explanation can be seen as part of a circular model of research.This process can work in two ways: inductively or deductively (Veal, 2005). Inductive research is a study in which theory is developed from the observation of empirical reality (Yin 2003) . The deductive process is used to test the hypothesis against data (Veal, 2005). 5. 1 Qualitative Research Quantitative and qualitative are two principle research methodologies (Hussey and Hussey 1997). Qualitative approaches involve gathering a great deal of information about a relatively small number of subjects rather than a limited amount of information about a large number of subjects.Qualitative approaches are used when he researcher accepts that the concepts, terms and critical issues should be defined by the subjects of the research and not by the researchers. They are often used for the study of groupÃ¢â¬â¢s particularly where interaction between group members is of interest. They are also used when exploratory theory building, rather than theory testing, is undertaken. The methods used to gather qualitative information include observation, informal, unstructured and in-depth interviewing, and participant observation (Veal, 2005). 5. 2 Quantitative ResearchQuantitative a pproach to research involves the gathering and analysis of numerical data. It relies on numerical evidence to draw conclusions or test hypotheses. To be sure of the reliability of the result it is often necessary to study relative large numbers of people or organizations-subjects-and therefore to use computers to analyze the data. Typically, the aim is for the sample studied to be representative of some wider population, so that the results can be generalized to that wider population. The data might be derived from questionnaires-based, surveys, from observation or from secondary sources, such as sales data (Veal, 2005). . 3 Proposed Research Method Based on the research methods identified above, the next step should be focus on the choosing of research methods to apply in the research. In this study, deductive research approach and quantitative method would be selected and used to do the dissertation. 6. Collection of Data 6. 1 Secondary Data According to Boyce (2002), secondary Da ta is defined as fact and figures that already exist and that may be available to people who would like to access and use them for own purpose. Secondary data have the potential to play an important part in any research process, particular in the design of a project.It provides background information that helps the researcher to understand the task more clearly, without it, the research would be difficult to ensure the validity and reliability. It is inexpensive and available quickly compared with primary data. Thus, in this research, secondary data would be widely used and to support this study. 6. 2 Primary Data Primary data are facts and figures that are newly collected for the project (Kerin et al, 2003). Most market research sets out to obtain primary data and the main methods used to do this are survey and focus groups and depth interviews.Survey is often interviewing large numbers of people and asked themto fill in answers to questionnaires. In focus groups and depth intervie ws, small numbers of carefully selected people give their opinions in detail in an informal and unstructured setting (Boyce 2002). Primary data are usually far more costly and time consuming to collect than secondary data. 6. 2. 1 Sample Size of Primary Data It is very crucial and important to determine the sample size of project. Generally speaking, the more sample sizes collected, the more accuracy the research.In this research, the sample size of primary data will be medium scale and sent to over 200 survey respondents which are conduct to the group and individuals will select from consumer who are willing to complete the questionnaire. Around 100 survey respondents will be asked to fill in the questionnaires directly and the other 100 samples will be done online by sending emails to people. 7. Method of Data Analysis The data gathered would be statistically analyzed and to see whether the hypotheses that were generated have been supported (Bryman, and Bell, 2007).For this study, the researcher would use the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) to do the data analysis after collecting back the survey questionnaires from all the respondents. 8. Presentation of Dissertation This dissertation will be presented several graphs and data figures to supported writing and facilities readers. 9. Ethical Issues RespondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ information will be kept confidential as per university guidelines. 10. Timetable |Month |March ,2010 |April, 2010 | May, 2010 |Content |Week |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |10 |11 |12 | |Problems Identification | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Literature Review | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Research Design | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Chose of Methodology | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Data Source | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Data Collection | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Data Analysis | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Writing Up Draft | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Editing | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Final Document | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Organ izing Of Document | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Source: Create for this research ResourcesReferences Sekaran, U. (2003), Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach, 4th edition, the United States of America: John Wiley &Sons, Inc. Hussey, J. and Hussey, R. (1997), Business Research: A practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students, MacMillan Business, London. 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Saturday, November 9, 2019
UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA MASTERÃ¢â¬â¢S IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MGT 745: HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT TOPIC: IDENTIFYING TRAINING RESOURCES Introduction This paper purports to outline steps needed to identify resources for training. It will illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of using different types of training drawing examples from the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ workplace experience. Resource could be defined as follows, Ã¢â¬Å"a source of supply, support, or aid, esp. one that can be readily drawn upon when needed. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦The total means available to a company for increasing production or profit, including plant, labor, and raw material; assets. Ã¢â¬ http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/resources Resources can be defined as assets available and anticipated for operations. These include people (learners, facilitators/trainers/consultants), time, infrastructure, equipment, availability of training institutions, and availability of financial resources (money/funds). The ki nd of resources required depend on the type of training that is to be carried out. Hence the identification of training resources is a critical component of training/ learning effectiveness that can be manifested at the individual, team, and organisation level. It is therefore important to identify training resources as this allows training to make a difference that is noticeable; training with a practical value or utility to both employees and the organization. One key factor in employee motivation and retention is the opportunity to continue to grow and develop job and career enhancing skills. Employees need to be equipped to handle employee relations and responsibilities competently. Training in any organization needs resources to be executed or implemented effectively hence the need to draw up a budget that can be utilized. The major resource for training is financial, therefore the need for the department to have cost estimates for most of the training being investigated. For example at the Botswana Police Forensic Science Laboratory, every financial year when budget estimates are drawn for the lab, training is included in the budget. Courses that need immediate attention (as per the need of the lab or gap that exist) are listed together alongside estimated costs and length of the training. Institutions that offer the training, course content, length of training and costs are identified beforehand. This budget is then submitted to the training board of the Botswana Police Service for screening and approval. In the Department of Vocational Education and Training (DVET), short term training budget is decentralized to regional offices and the budget tends to be similar or vary slightly from the previous year whereas long term training budget is coordinated at head quarters. The implication is that short term training budget may not necessarily reconcile with any required training. The organization should also take cognizance of the fact that people learn in different ways, therefore the training has to match employee learning preferences which may help to speed up their training and reduce costs at the same time. Some considerations when identifying resources for training are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ What areas need training to be conducted? i. e. identifying problem areas. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Who needs training and in what area? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How complex is the training that is needed? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How much time do learners have to learn the new knowledge and skills? How much money is available to pay for the training, whether in-house or using a consultant? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How capable are learners to undertake the training? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are learner's learning preferences and styles? For example, in DVET training for the junior officers (industrial class) is normally done in Setswana. Ã¢â¬ ¢ What institutions are available for tailored or the required training? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Could training be conducted in hous e, on the job, outsourcing or in external institutions? And which method could suite learners? And benefit the organisation in a valuable and practical manner. Types of Training Resources Internal Training The types of training, classified as internal, external or a hybrid of the two have a bearing on the types of resources needed to implement. Internal training can be mentoring, coaching, seminars, workshops or classroom based training e. g. at the department of Government Printing, there is internal classroom based training whereby employees are taught within the department. The training is based on the theory and technical knowledge that the staff needs in order to improve their performance and prepare them for further training. This type of training requires a trainer, classroom, equipment such as projectors, television and video technologies. After completion of this internal training, qualifying employees are then sent for further training abroad for a higher learning programme. In the case of Printing, where there are no local institutions that offer training within the country, the department relies on colleges/universities based in the United Kingdom. The Department of Land Board Services in the Ministry of Lands and Housing mostly provide classroom based training, for example, on introduction to computers. This training is conducted mainly for the industrial class workforce to equip them with basic skills for working and operating computers. The resources used for this type of training include computers, Information Technology officers who conduct the training and the members of staff. At DVET regional offices most short term training programs are externally sourced where it is assumed that specialized courses for specific needs and in addition staff are given liberty to select training courses and institutions but subject to approval by supervisors and funds permitting. Other general training courses such as customer services improvement courses are selected by human resources officers as part of staff development. However, public sector reforms are cascaded internally form senior management to junior officers in consultation/ facilitation with performance improvement coordinators and funds have to be availed as a matter of priority, at times combining facilitators, equipment and funds across departments within the same ministry. It is essential to note that internal training is not as costly as external training which is one of its major advantages, as it is cost effective. Many businesses choose to train employees in-house (type of internal training) can offer a number of advantages over external training providers. Internal training can be: Ã¢â¬ ¢ tailored to specific business' needs Ã¢â¬ ¢ scheduled for a time that suits business Ã¢â¬ ¢ time effective Ã¢â¬â employees do not spend additional time or money traveling However, there are a number of disadvantages to note including some of the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The possible tendency for employees not to take the training seriously especially if it is conducted by a core employee with low reputation within the organisation or has less to offer to other employees. Difficulties faced by the organisation to identify a suitable trainer or the necessary resources in-house / internally. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The potential risk of passing or perpetuating existing inefficiencies or poor business practices For internal training to be effective, HR managers need to ensure they have the appropriate expertise and resources in -house. They will have to dedicate the necessary resources to training programmes. These resources could include management time, an experienced trainer, training or course materials, equipment such as PCs, telephones or machinery and space in which to carry out the training. To help expose and enhance the skills of internal trainer with less information to offer to learners, consideration should be given to send them on a train-the-trainer course to ensure their training methods and materials are up to date and effective. Alternatively, if there are no necessary skills in-house, HR managers could purchase off-the-shelf or tailor-made courses or choose whether to use an internal or external trainer to run the course. This should be supplemented by appropriate e-learning courses and investing in internal training support databses. There are tailor-made courses covering a wide range of topics, one should choose a course that meets organizational and employees needs. They can be targeted, confidential and cost a fraction of the price of sending each employee on an external scheme. ON- The- Job Training (OJT) Under internal training there is also On-the-job training (OJT): Having a person learns a job by actually doing the job. OJT methods Coaching/ understudy For example at the BPS Forensic lab, when new employees start work (newly employed), they first undergo intensive in-house training before they can be released to work independently. At first they circulate in all the sections of the lab to get an overview of what each section does, then after which they are sent to the relevant sections they were employed to join. This is where they are taken through intensive coaching on the tests that are carried out at that particular section. Trainees are taught the theory behind the tests done, shown how to do the actual tests, then do the tests themselves under the supervision of the facilitator (usually an experienced member of the section). At the end a supervisor assesses them both theoretically and practically. When they satisfy the required standard of performance, they are then allowed to work independently. At DVET coaching of new staff does not follow any uniform structure. The new staff members will be coached on the requirements of the job and will then conditions will require older staff in the field to assign tasks coach and supervise the new staff work. At DVET our coaching has advantage of making new staff get to know how to do work quickly, but has disadvantage of not being documented hence may not necessarily consistently follow any set guidelines. Job rotation Job rotation consists of moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points, the method is inexpensive and provides an organisation with immediate feed back. In the Department of Culture and Youth, Performing arts Unit job rotation is widely used mainly because of lack of staff. An Arts Festival organizer and manager could be assigned perform information and systems analysis activities/ funds allocation / research and documentation activities. This has worked for the department through the years as the organisation is sure of continuity of its programmes despite the loss of any officer in certain specialty areas. One officer who was originally a Performing Arts research and documentation officer ended up being a systems analysis officer. The officer realized that he did not really enjoy his line of specialty hence could easily shift from one specialty to the next for the benefit of the organisation. Seminars and Workshops At the BPS Forensic Lab, some seminars/workshops are conducted for all the employees on certain subjects, e. g. Occupation Health and Safety workshops. Employees gather at a venue and a consultant/facilitator is sourced to deliver on the subject. However, for other workshops one or two employees are chosen to attend on behalf of the lab (especially for those that involve a wide range of participants from different labs/departments and charge expensive attendance fees). After the seminar/workshops the rep(s) share what they have learnt with other employees of the Forensic lab through presentations. They also produce a report which is sent to the Police HR department and a copy left with the Director, Forensic Science Services. At DVET seminar and workshops are the major methods used to enhance skills of staff for short term training. External Training External training has to do more with taking employees to an institution or a place outside the parameters of the working environment. Unlike internal training, this requires more and extensive preparation. It is also capital intensive as more money is needed to pay for accommodation, food, learning materials and other costs associated with training. The HR unit has to first identify appropriate institutions where they can send their employees and his takes time as one has to research on the place before making any decisions. After completing the research a database of these learning places is created so as to have readily available information on where to get what kind of training and at what cost. In identifying these training institutions, the HR unit can send out tenders/quotations to companies. In other cases, institutions themselves send out brochures o r call the organizations and advertise themselves. For example, BNPC and BOBS email their training programmes for the year to our department on matters relating to productivity and quality management. They also advertise on the newspapers. At DVET regional offices every year a compiled list of staff needs are sent to HR officers at head office who in turn prioritize and select officers from training. However, due concerns on transparency of the wholly exercise a training committee is about to start working on staff training, though its guidelines are yet to be finalized. Attachment An example of external training which may not be as costly is sending employees for attachments to other organizations that offer similar services or have advanced technology that you need to learn about. As some people learn better in a practical environment, so sending them for an attachment to an organization that offers the same or similar services will be vital. This kind of training is very cost effective because sometimes if it is done locally, not much money is spent. Example: The department of GPPS wanted to buy new equipment, an image-setter which we found was available at a local private printing house. One officer from the unit that uses the equipment was sent to that company for three months to learn how to operate the equipment. There was no money required as the company offered to help. The training was effective as the employees now assists in operating the equipment and was also able to teach colleagues in the same unit. Example of External training at the BPS Forensic Lab It comes in the following forms a) Attachment of Scientists to labs outside Botswana who have advanced technologies and expertise that ours. The scientists are sent there to learn how to do certain tests or how to operate certain machinery. When they come back, they teach other members of the section, make presentations to the whole lab, and produce a report. b) Short courses (e. g. o obtain certificates on certain operations), MastersÃ¢â¬â¢s Degrees in Forensic Science as well as PHDÃ¢â¬â¢s in Forensic Science. These courses are offered outside Botswana (no local institution offers courses on Forensics at present), and in many instances people are sent to the UK or the USA. The skills that they acquire in their training are also shared by teaching others what they learnt and also come up wi th better ways of doing things. They also submit reports and make presentations. Apprenticeship training It is a structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training. At the University of Botswana this is done mainly by the engineering department. Students spend time in the classroom learning there after take a semester or 2 working on attachment with DeBeers or any engineering company. This method is advantageous because it links work experience with the learning experience hence preparing a learner to be ready for the workplace. Furthermore, to cut cost in external resource trainingÃ an HR Manager should plan ahead to cut costs. That way the manager could be able to send or book a course for a larger group of people to get discounts. Or could send one person on a training course and ask them to teach others in the business. Or take up free offers and cheap training from providers of new machinery and systems. How to identify External Resources Important Steps for identifying external resources drawn from the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ various workplaces, 1) List all institutes that offer training and information about them that is location, contacts, type of workshops, Etc. There are many institutes offering training courses, workshops and programs. With the advent of the Internet, many sites also offer free or chargeable online training. ) List key training areas offered by each institute 3) Relate each training area to employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs, competencies and capabilities identified earlier. 4) List web sites that offer free or chargeable online training and maintain up to date information. 5) Correspond with institutes to keep the Department up to date. The advantages of using training providers are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ they are sp ecialists Ã¢â¬ ¢ they can bring you up to date on current best practice and new ideas Ã¢â¬ ¢ employees may interact with counterparts in other companies Ã¢â¬ ¢ employees may learn better away from their usual work environment The disadvantages: it is difficult to know the ability and subject knowledge of the trainer Ã¢â¬ ¢ putting an entire team through training at the same time can disrupt your business Ã¢â¬ ¢ they are more costly than delivering internally Ã¢â¬ ¢ the training may not be specific to your particular business Ã¢â¬ ¢ Not up to date lists of institutions will lead to loss of time when training is required. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Limited knowledge in what is available in terms of training may lead to misconceptions about what the staff may require in terms of their training. E-learning and distance learning courses: There are different types of distance learning methods including correspondence courses and e-learning courses. Some courses may be completed online while others might incorporate study books, CD-ROMs or audio and video tapes backed up by student tutorials and seminars. Distance education and E Ã¢â¬â learning are therefore advantageous because they Ã¢â¬ ¢ allow employees to complete training while remaining in employment Ã¢â¬ ¢ can be completed at a time to suit the business and employees Ã¢â¬ ¢ are cheaper than externally provided courses are available for a wide range of business topics Ã¢â¬ ¢ Offer recognized qualifications from entry level diplomas and certificates to post-graduate degrees. Training via the Internet: Using the internet or proprietary internal intranets to facilitate computer-based training. University of Botswana has recently established an E-Learning e. g. WEBCT, programme whereby students and staff could learn th rough internet/ intranet. This type of computer based learning carry the Advantages of reduced learning time, cost-effectiveness and consistency in instruction material, methods and presentation. The University also has distance programmes offering Degree in business studies and Diploma in Primary Teaching Education. Radio/ Teletraining: A trainer in a central location teaches groups of employees at remote/ or different locations via TV hookups. This is mainly used by Ministry of Education especially through radio. As a teacher one experience radio lessons whereby both students are taught through radio and instructions are given to the teacher as to how or what to provide to the students. Videoconferencing: Interactively training employees who are geographically separated from each otherÃ¢â¬âor from the trainerÃ¢â¬âvia a combination of audio and visual equipment. One recalls a situation whereby, students who studied Music at University of Natal Ã¢â¬â Petermarisburg campus from 1999 Ã¢â¬â 2000 experienced video conferencing. At the time the University, currently known as Univesrsity of Kwazulu Natal, offered Music Degree at the Durban Campus, which then disadvantaged students in petermarisburg. Therefore the University devised the video conferencing to train Petermarisburg students in music courses from Durban campus. While lesson were on process in Durban Petermarisburg students also experienced an interactive and learning process of the same class through video conferencing. Conclusion While internal training is important and can be invaluable in some areas of development, the external training process can add interest, give a greater breadth of experience and working practices, and equally important is the freedom to be able to choose a course and a style of learning that is suitable for each individual, rather than the department or team as a whole. Each individual member of the workforce will have different needs, both in terms of the type of training they require, the level of training and of course the time needed to train. Pitman Training for example, offers flexible learning, which means companies can guarantee each of their employees is meeting their individual achievements and targets, while fitting in their study at a time which suits them. Training can be done at their convenience, without having to sacrifice time at work and also without upsetting that all important work-life balance. Possibly the biggest benefit of drawing on the expertise of an external trainer such as Pitman Training, is the attraction of gaining a nationally recognized certification Ã¢â¬â providing your staff with confidence that they're receiving quality training, and your company the knowledge that it has quality trained staff All types of training resources seem to carry advantages and disadvantages; this study recommends that an organisation should choose training resources according to its learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and capabilities. Organizations could outsource trainers who would make the learning meaningful; skills transfer easy and motivate the learner. Outsourcing has the advantage of quickly addressing specific needs, and easier to coordinate but has the disadvantage of being relatively expensive. Organizations could also broaden employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s skills through on job training and in house seminars, workshops as well as forums and short courses to save on time and cost since time is an essential tool for effective production and success of the organisation. It is advised that organizations should purchase training resources such as laptops, projectors, mobile screen, flip charts, markers, and conference room etc for in house training to be efficient and effective and cost effective. Therefore this paper concludes that there is no best method of training resources but it mostly relies on the needs and capabilities of an organisation. Hence an organisation should choose what is best for it and also consider balancing all the methods provided in this paper. REFERENCES http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/resources Training Development: Fertile Ground for BPO. IDC, May 2003 [pic] Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [pic]